Gibt es wissenschaftliche Forschung oder Beweise, dass die Squease Tiefendruckweste funktioniert?

Die Squease Druckweste war Teil einer Pilotstudie, die zeigte, dass Squease den Oxytocinspiegel (oft beschrieben als das Glücks- oder Kuschelhormon) bei den TeilnehmerInnen steigerte. Die Studie wurde von dem amerikanischen Wissenschaftler Paul Zak durchgeführt, und ist unten beschrieben. Die Squeaseweste wird auch in Forschungsstudien mit anderen Organisationen in den Niederlanden verwendet. So bald die Ergebnisse erscheinen, werden wir sie hier veröffentlichen.

Menschen mit sensorischen Verarbeitungproblemen (besonders die mit Autismus und AD(H)S), Eltern und TherapeutInnen haben an der Entwicklung von Squease von Anfang an teilgenommen. Ihr Feedback half uns mit dem Enddesign und den vielen Details, die Squease zu einem großartigen Produkt machen. Wir haben auch viele positive Geschichten von tausenden von AnwenderInnen gehört, auch von deren Familien und TherapeutInnen. Sehr oft schicken uns die AnwenderInnen selbst Geschichten von ihren Erfahrungen. Werfe einen Blick auf den Abschnitt Effect von tiefem Druck, um die Grundsätze von tiefem Druck zu verstehen.

Da unsere Tiefendruckweste relative neu ist, erforschen die meisten Akademiker die Auswirkungen von tiefem Druck bei Menschen, die unter sensorischen Verarbeitungsproblemen leiden, und verwenden dabei noch erschwerte Produkte ( wie z.B. erschwerte Westen oder erschwerte Decken), um ein Gefühl von Druck zu erzeugen. Die Ergebnisse der Forschung der erschwerten Produkte ist geteilt. Leider haben eine Anzahl von erhältlichen Studien nur eine kleine Beispielgruppe (weniger als 5 Leute) und wir glauben, dass dieses Gebiet mehr Studien benötigt. Wir würden uns freuen, wenn wir an eine Studie teilnehmen könnten, die die Auswirkungen von tiefem Druck untersuchen würde. Wir ermutigen dich sehr, dass du deine eigene Forschung betreibst und haben die Studien, die unsere Entwicklung am meisten beeinflusst haben, unten aufgelistet.

Squease pressure vest increases oxytocin – pilot study

Summary: For this preliminary pilot study, 4 users wore the Squease pressure vest for 20 minutes each. Measurements were taken before and after,  for change in stress hormones, oxytocin and the physiologic effect. The Squease Vest appears to mimic the effects of a human-to-human hug. This is shown in a small increase in Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a moderate increase in Oxytocin (OT). OT is ONLY increased by social interactions, so this is an important finding. The change in positive mood is consistent with the increase in OT. Overall, a very successful pilot which warrants a larger scale publishable study.

Dr Paul. J. Zak
Pilot Study

Effects of weighted vests on attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Objective: In this study, we examined the effectiveness of using weighted vests for improving attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method: In a randomized, two-period crossover design, 110 children with ADHD were measured using the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test–II (CPT–II) task.

Results: In the weighted vest condition, the participants did show significant improvement in all three attentional variables of the CPT–II task, including inattention; speed of processing and responding; consistency of executive management; and three of four on-task behaviors, including off task, out of seat, and fidgets. No significant improvements in impulse control and automatic vocalizations were found.

Conclusion: Although wearing a weighted vest is not a cure-all strategy, our findings support the use of the weighted vest to remedy attentional and on-task behavioral problems of children with ADHD.

Hung-Yu Lin; Posen Lee; Wen-Dien Chang; Fu-Yuan Hong

American Journal of Occupational Therapy, March/April 2014, Vol. 68, 149-158. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.009365

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Reported Experiences using Weighted vests with Children with Specific Developmental Disorders

A survey of 51 Occupational Therapists entered responses into a data bank. Quantitative Results suggest changes in attention and staying on task (for children with developmental disorders); decreased rocking and increased eye contact(for children with autism); and decreased act outs (for children with SID). Qualitative Results noted that 70% of respondents reported changes in their children’s behavior and postural control were due to the use of a weighted vest.

Olson LJ, Moulton HJ.

Occup Ther Int. 2004;11(1):52-66.

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Occupational Therapists’ Reported Experiences using Weighted vests with Children with Specific Developmental Disorders.

This sampling of 514 pediatric OTs found a majority of positive responses regarding improvements in their client’s on-task performance while wearing weighted vests. It was cautioned though that biases were possible due to the opinions of the clinicians and the subjectivity of their perceptions of the results with the use of a weighted vest.

Olson LJ, Moulton HJ

Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2004;24(3):45-60.

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Behavioral and physiological effects of deep pressure on children with autism: A pilot study evaluating the efficacy of Grandin’s hug machine.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a device called the Grandin’s Hug Machine (a machine that offers self controlled lateral body pressure) on arousal and anxiety reduction in autism. Arousal was measured with the Conners Parent Rating Scale (to be completed by the parents before the 1st session and after the 6th and 12th session). Physiological responses were measured with a galvanic skin response reading (GSR) (measured before and after each session). Each child received 12, 20-minute sessions in the Hug Machine. (2 x’s a week for 6 weeks). They were to apply deep pressure with the machine as often as desired. The placebo group laid in the machine with the lever for the deep pressure disengaged, so they were unable to apply pressure. The results showed a significant reduction in tension and anxiety for the experimental group as well as a decrease in GSR measures after the deep pressure.

Edelson SM, Edelson MG, Kerr DC, Grandin T.

Am J Occup Ther. 1999 Mar-Apr;53(2):145-52.

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The effect of the wearing of weighted vests on the sensory behaviour of learners diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder within a school context

Purpose: Children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have sensory processing difficulties. Therefore, they find it difficult to function optimally in the classroom environment. This study investigated the effect that wearing a weighted vest has on their in-seat behaviour, task completion speed and attention-to-task.

Method: A longitudinal experimental research design was employed with 30 foundation Phase learners from a remedial school in Gauteng; cross-over of treatment was implemented. Data on in-seat behaviour was measured by recording the period of time participants were able to stay seated. Task completion speed was assessed by timing how long participants were able to stay seated during literacy periods. The Conners’ Continues Performance Test II was used to measure participants’ attention to the task.

Results: The Phase group effect for in-seat behaviour and attention-to-task indicated a statistically significant difference when learners wore weighted vests. This was not true for task completion speed.

Conclusion: The weighted vests improved the in-seat behaviour and attention to task of learners diagnosed with ADHD in a classroom context.

Fransli Buckle, Denise Franzsen, Juanita Bester

South African Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 41, No 3 (2011)

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A systematic review of treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders.

This study systematically examined the efficacy and safety of psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four psychopharmacological, nine cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and two alternative treatment studies met inclusion criteria.

Psychopharmacological studies were descriptive or open label, sometimes did not specify the anxiety phenotype, and reported behavioral activation. Citalopram and buspirone yielded some improvement, whereas fluvoxamine did not. Non-psychopharmacological studies were mainly randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with CBT demonstrating moderate efficacy for anxiety disorders in youth with high functioning ASD. Deep pressure and neurofeedback provided some benefit. All studies were short-term and included small sample sizes. Large scale and long term RCTs examining psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments are sorely needed.

Vasa RA, Carroll LM, Nozzolillo AA, Mahajan R, Mazurek MO, Bennett AE, Wink LK, Bernal MP.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Dec;44(12):3215-29. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2184-9.

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